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They were their parents Mikhail and Maria; Fyodor was the second of seven children. The mother of Fyodor died from an illness in 1837. Fyodor and their brother Michael were taken to the Academy of the Military Engineering of San Petersburgo soon after their mother's death, although these plans had even begun before she got sick.

A lot of time didn't pass until his father, a surgeon military pensioner that was good as doctor in the Hospital of Mariinsky for poor people in Moscow , also died in 1839. Although not confirmed with all security, it is believed that Mikhail Dostoevsky was murdered by his own servants that became furious during one of the attacks of violent drunkenness of Mikhail according to received reports, and they gave to streams the vodka in his mouth until he drowned. Another history says that Mikhail died from natural causes, and a neighboring farmer manufactured this history of a rural rebellion so that he could buy the very cheap property. Without keeping in mind what can have happened really, Sigmund Freud was focused in this story in their famous article, Dostoevsky and Patricide (1928).

Dostoevsky was arrested and imprisoned in 1849 to commit in revolutionary activity against the Czar Nicholas I. November 16 that year he was sentenced to death by anti-government activities related with a radical intellectual group, the Circle of Petrashevsky. His readings, limited to the Bible, pushed him to reject the socialist atheism, of western inspiration that he had practiced in their youth. Jesus Christ teachings became the supreme confirmation of their ethical ideas and of the possibility of the salvation through the suffering. The brutality that observed among the cruelest criminals, sprinkled at the same time by expressions of generosity and for noble feelings, they helped him to deepen in their knowledge of the complexity of the human spirit. After an execution simulated in the one that he faced a shooting platoon, Dostoevsky's sentence was commuted by several years of exile carrying out works forced in a camp of prisoners of Katorga in Omsk , Siberia . The epilepsy incidence to that he was predisposed increased during this period of suffering. It was liberated of the prison in 1854, and he was demanded to serve in the Siberian Regiment. Dostoevsky passed the following five years like corporal (and lately as lieutenant) in the Battalion of the Seventh Line of the Regiment parked in the strength of Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan .

This was a point of deep change in the author's life. Dostoevsky abandoned his earlier radical feelings and he became deeply conservative and extremely religious. He cultivated a peculiar friendship later with another ultra conservative, Konstantin Pobedonostsev. A romance began with María Dmitrievna Isaeva, with the one who later married. She was the widow of an acquaintance in Siberia .

In 1860, he returned to San Petersburgo where it founded a series of fruitless literary newspapers with their bigger brother Mikhail. Dostoevsky was desolated by his wife's death in 1864, continued shortly by his brother's death. He was financially broken by the commercial debts and the necessity of maintaining their brother's widow and their children. Dostoevsky collapsed in a deep depression, while he frequented rooms of game for money and he accumulated happily thick losses in the tables.

To escape from the creditors in San Petersburgo, Dostoevsky traveled to Western Europe . There, he tried having again a loving adventure with Apollinaria (Polina) Suslova, a young university student with who had had a romance already before several years, but she refused to their marriage proposal. Dostoevsky was very heartbroken for this reason, but soon he met with Anna Snitkina, a nineteen year-old stenographer with which married in 1867. This period produced the writing of its biggest books. Of 1873 at 1881 he claimed their previous journalistic failures publishing a monthly newspaper full with short histories, sketches, and articles on the current events - the Writer's Newspaper. The newspaper was an enormous success.

In 1877 Dostoevsky he made the praise note in their friend's funeral, the poet Nekrasov, with a lot of controversy. In 1880, little before their death, he pronounced their famous speech from Pushkin when removing the veil of the monument of Pushkin in Moscow .

In their years later, Fyodor Dostoevsky lived during a lot of time in Staraya Russa that was more near San Petersburgo and less expensive than Germany. He died January 28 1881 and it was buried in the Cemetery of Tikhvin in the Monastery Alejandro Nevsky, in San Petersburgo , Russia .

 

1821 - He was born November 11, in Moscow . Their father, Mijaíl Andréievich, was medical of María's Hospital for indigent, in one of the poorest neighborhoods in Moscow . There they inhabited a minuscule housing. He is the second of eight children. Their childhood lapsed solitary - due to his enclave - and under the tyranny of a hard, irascible father and fond of the drink. Their mother, María Fiódorovna Necháieva, kind, was very devote of character, and it introduced their children in the art and in the literature. Their first education they received it in the home, under the father's rigorous care.

1827 - Their father is honored with Santa Ana 's order and noted Collegiate Adviser. With it is included it to him and their children in the registration of the hereditary nobility of Moscow .

1831 - Mijaíl Andreievich acquires Darovoe and Chermoshná, a small village and a small town, in the county of Tula . Then it will turn out to be a bad investment, due to the not well state of the properties.

1833 - He enters, with their bigger brother Mijaíl, in a pensioner as half internal.

1834 - They enter in the pensioner of Chermak, where the complete secondary school was studied, and where the best professors in Moscow were. Davídov, Doctor in Literature, one of the professors of Chermak, is who vivified the small Dostoevsky's literary restlessness analyzing the problems of the modern Russian literature.

1837 - Dostoevsky's mother dies from a galloping consumption, February 27, to the 37 year-old age. In May, Fyodor and Mijaíl enter in the School of Military Engineers , in San Petersburgo, entering with problems due to the immediacy of the entrance exams. Mijaíl is rejected by reasons of health, and Fyodor it is accepted although without scholarship. It takes a solitary life, refugee in the literature. July 1 retire their father to their possessions, amid a considerable economic precariousness. There, due to their character and to their alcoholism, the hate of its servants is won.

1839 - June eight, Mijaíl Andréievich dies at the hands of its servants. The Kumanin, the political family of the mother's sister, and that they had already carried some of the Dostoevsky's expenses, they are taken the orphans' charge and they also take charge of administering the country property.

1841 - After the exams, Dostoevsky is ascended second lieutenant field engineer. This gives him more social mobility, and therefore a more direct contact with the literary world.

1843 - In August he finishes the military career without too much success, and it is dedicated, with the second lieutenant grade, to the service of topography of the Body of Engineers of San Petersburgo. It carries debts, for their liking to the game and the life little administered.

1844 - Balzac San Petersburgo visits, and Dostoevsky conceives the idea of translating Eugénie Grandet to liquidate a debt of 300 rubles with a loan shark. This translation will wake up its vocation, and soon after of finishing it he requests the leave of the army with the idea of being devoted exclusively to the literature. September 30, little before receiving the leave order, he writes their brother saying him that it is finishing a novel. In November, it finishes Poor People, although then numerous retouches and polishes will come.

1846 - It is published Poor People, and it is received with an enthusiastic critic that he calls to Dostoitevsky "new Gogol". This success opens him the doors of the literary living rooms, and where is related with the big writers of the time that were for that time in San Petersburgo, with editors and with critical. That same year it publishes another story, The alias, that is also received with success. However, to this they continue him other stories, more fantastic, how him same the flame, and that they disappoint to the critic that nevertheless (except in the sounded case of the ferocious critic of Belinski to The owner) they don't revolve against him. Be like be, the stories that he has gone publishing between 1846 and 1848 have already given him certain fame.

1848-1850 - Dostoevsky's pride hurts for the hard critic of Belinski, and he conceives a more ambitious work, another novel. This way, he begins to write Niétochska Nezvánova, publishing it, as he writes it in Point Native. However, the writing is unfinished: it takes place, April 23, Dostoevsky's detention for ownership to socialist groups. Dostoevsky will finish Niétochska Nezvánova in 1860, subjecting the main idea to an important change. Of the 123 detainees of the socialist circle of Petrashevski, 21, among them Dostoevsky, they are condemned to death. After eight months of reclusion in Pedro and Pablo 's strength, they are driven in front of the platoon. The first three blindfolded criminals were already and before the platoon, when the commutation of the hardships arrived for others of prison and forced works. To Dostoevsky it fit him 4 years of forced works in the penitentiary of Omsk and the successive incorporation to lines like ordinary soldier. He entered in the prison January 23 1850.

1854-1857 - In February it concludes the condemnation that, with all that happened previously, it has meant a mark that will take all their life and it will affect him in many aspects. It enters, as it dictated the penalty, in the 7º battalion of Semipalatinsk like ordinary soldier. There, however, and although the atmosphere is not better than in penal, he can write and to read, and he puts on hands to the work to recover lost time and to put on at the present time a day literary. As the time passes they are gone opening the doors of the surroundings and he leaves relaxing its régime, until he ends up having an own room where, at night, he can write. It frequents a house of a tuberculosis and alcoholic official of customs, Isáev, with whose woman falls in love with passion Dostoevsky. After being widow, María Isaeva, with a son, marries Dostoevsky in February of 1857. That same year, the czar Alejandro II order an amnesty that affects Dostoevsky, and it recovers this way their nobility and it can already publish their works.

1858 - In August, Native Notes publish a little short story, The Small Hero, with the alias of M-y. Dostoevsky, wrote it in Pedro and Pablo 's strength.

1859 - He receives the licence, with lieutenant's grade, and together with the permission of residing in any place but not in San Petersburgo and Moscow . He moves to Tver. While he resides there, the Uncle's dream and The village of Stepánchikovo and their inhabitants are published, conceived as works with those that he would recover the lost name. The magazines don't welcome him completely well. In December he is authorized to return to San Petersburgo. After ten years of confinement, Dostoevsky returns, with his family, deeply changed, penetrated of a Christian, and accented resignation spirit the social and political conservatism that had already begun before his detention.

1860 - Starting from September the first chapters of Memories of the House of the Deads appear, in the newspaper The Russian World. He works, and it will continue working, in it since he left the prison, and he picks up numerous examples and authentic characters, of among all that knew in Omsk .

1861 - In January, in the first issue of the magazine that their brother Mijaíl has founded, The Time begins to publish Humiliated and Offended.

1862 - Dostoevsky carries out his first trip to the foreign in June of this year, traveling to France , Italy and England . There his relationships begin with Polina Súslova.

1863 - Starting from the trip to Europe 1862, the winter Notes arise on summer impressions, not in fact the narration of a dream trip, but a virulent critic of all the countries that visits, accusing them of moral decadence and criticizing their materialism, affirming that Russia will only be able to leave ahead by means of its tradition, reaffirming the posture pro Slavic. These notes are published in The Time, little before it closes. At the end of year he moves to Moscow for their wife's illness. Dostoevsky travels to Paris , among other things to meet with Polina Súslova, with which travels again through Italy . They separate after this trip and Dostoevsky returns again to Moscow for Italy .

1864 - Mijaíl and Fyodor are able to publish a new magazine, The Time, and there they publish Notes of the Underground. In May María Dmítrievna dies. In summer Mijaíl Dostoevsky dies. Fyodor is taken charge of its debts (25.000 rubles) and of its family that is abandoned. He works indefatigably in the magazine, but it is not able to take out it ahead. The debts begin to burden him.

1865 - The debts continue burdening him, and the game causes him more than displeasure, and he goes aboard in some not very profitable business, as the premature sale of a work to the publishing Stellovski. Stellovski accepts: if Dostoevsky doesn't give him the novel in the agreed term, Stellovski keeps the rights of all its work. He also offers to Katkov, The Russian messenger's director, the idea of a novel, the "psychological synthesis of a crime". Katkov accepts giving him an advance of 300 rubles.

1866 - It is published The Gambler, the novel that Dostoevsky has promised to Stellovski, and that, as it is related, Dostoevsky dictated in so single two weeks, while he worked in Crime and Punishment; the typist that helps him is Ana Snítkina. Dostoevsky the delivery on time, and he requests the typist that helps him until finishing Crime and Punishment, thing that she accepts. Crime and Punishment leaves publishing for deliveries in The Russian messenger, with a great acceptance on the part of critic and public.

1867 - Ana Snítkina and Fyodor Dostoevsky marry February 15. The relative of Fyodor Mijailovich burdens him more and more with economic demands, the creditors reduce the fence... Ana decides to put an end to the situation and she sells and pawns all her endowment. In March, the marriage goes to Europe, in a trip that it will last four years, with dark moments taken place by the epileptic attacks of him, more and more frequent, and for its relapses in the game; and, overalls, for the death, to the two months of age, of the daughter that was born them in Geneva, Sofía.

1870 - Another engaged novel appears to Katkov: The Idiot.

1871 - He appears The Demons. Being in Dresden , he is born to the couple a new son: Lubov. Katkov, with the promise of a new novel, advances them 500 rubles to return to Moscow , thing that they make in July. At the little time a new son is born them, to the one who they call this time Fiodor. To the turn the creditors assault them to who again makes front Ana, putting order. To their return, Dostoevsky that now enjoys of great prestige, it participates actively in the social life and intellectual of the time.

1873 - Director of The Citizen, a reactionary magazine becomes; in the contract a condition is imposed: that a part is dedicated to the Daily of a Writer. This will take to a hard polemic with the democratic sectors of the country. In Daily of a Writer he manifests openly, among other things, their ideas now reactionary. However, the contradictions - maybe apparent - of Dostoevsky they are something perfectly grateful, and at the same time that he manifests the official watchword "autocracy, orthodox religion and national spirit", he also manifests a great social conscience and a great human conscience.

1875 - The Adolescent appears.

1879 - It begins to publish The Brothers Karamázov, last novel of Dostoevsky; he novel framed in a project that he won't be able to finish.

1881 - Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky dies January 28.

 

Dostoevsky's influence cannot be overestimated: of Herman Hesse to Marcel Proust, of William Faulkner to Alberto Camus, of Franz Kafka to Gabriel García Márquez - virtually any great writer of the century 20 have escaped their long shade (the strange voices differing includes Vladimir Nabokov, Henry James and, more ambiguously, to David Herbert Lawrence). Essentially myth writer (and in this regarding times compared Herman Melville), Dostoevsky has created a work of immense vitality and the almost hypnotic power characterized by the following features: feverishly dramatized scenes (the conclaves) where their characters are frequently committed in the scandalous and explosive atmosphere, passionately committed with the Socratic dialogues of the Russia; the search of God, the problem of the Wrong and the suffering of the innocent ones frequent most of their novels; the characters fit in different categories: humble and modest Christian (prince Myshkin, Sonya Marmeladova, Alyosha Karamazov), nihilistic self-destructing (Svidrigailov, Smerdyakov, Stavrogin, the underground man), cynic libertines (Fyodor Karamazov), rebellious intellectuals (Raskolnikov, Ivan Karamazov); their characters are also managed by the ideas instead of the ordinary biological or social imperatives.

Dostoevsky's novels are compressed in the time (many only cover some few days) and this allows to the author that you free of one of the dominant features of the realistic prose, the corrosion of human life in the process of the flow of the time - their characters include mainly the spiritual values and these are, by definition, eternal. Other obsessive topics include the suicide, the wounded pride, the collapse of the family values, the spiritual regeneration through suffering (the most important reason), the western rejection and the statement of the Russian Orthodoxy and the Zarismo. Their work is sometimes characterized as 'polyphonic': contrary to other different novelists, Dostoevsky is free of 'a single vision', and although many writers have described the situations of several angles, Dostoevsky has only engendered completely dramatic novels of ideas where contradictory points of view and characters are developed toward an intolerable crescendo.

For general critical consent, among the bundle of universal world authors, next to Dante, Shakespeare, Miguel of Cervantes, Victor Hugo and other, Dostoevsky has influenced decisively in the literature of the century 20, particularly in the existentialism and the expressionism.
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